Liposarcoma retroperitoneal complicado: a propósito de un caso

Complicated retroperitoneal liposarcoma: A case report Complicated retroperitoneal liposarcoma: A case report

Rev Chil Cir 2017; 69 (6): 498-501

Autor(es):

Cristina Galera Martínez
Esther Doiz Artázcoz
José Luis Fernández Serrano
Manuel Rodríguez-Piñero

Complicated retroperitoneal liposarcoma: A case report

AbstractResumen

Resumen Las neoplasias retroperitoneales suponen un reto para el profesional sanitario, tanto en el diagnóstico como en el tratamiento. Caso clínico: Varón de 56 años diabético tipo 2. Acude por edema en extremidad inferior derecha y parestesias. Se realiza ecografía doppler con resultados de trombosis venosa profunda y conglomerado adenopático. En TAC abdominal se observa gran masa retroperitoneal que engloba paquete vasculonervioso iliaco derecho. Se realiza vaciamiento ganglionar con resultado inicial de hamartoma. Se practica cirugía de resección de la masa y ligadura de la vena iliaca externa trombosada preservando la arteria iliaca. Anatomía patológica intraoperatoria sugestiva de sarcoma y definitiva de liposarcoma. Reingresa por shock hipovolémico y rotura de la arteria iliaca derecha. Se realiza ligadura y bypass femoro-femoral izquierdo-derecho. Al alta es derivado a oncología, falleciendo a los 6 meses. Discusión: El sarcoma es el tumor primario más frecuente a nivel retroperitoneal (15%). De difícil diagnóstico y tardío tratamiento, suelen ser asintomáticos hasta que debutan como una masa y clínica de compresión local o afectación de estructuras vasculonerviosas. El TAC es la prueba diagnóstica de elección. El tratamiento del tumor localizado es la cirugía; la radioterapia y quimioterapia se reservan para tumores irresecables o de alto grado.

Abstract Retroperitoneal neoplasias may be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the clinician. Case report: A 56 year old male with prior history of type 2 diabetes consults with right inferior limb edema and paresthesias. He was diagnosed of deep vein thrombosis and lymph node conglomerate by ultrasound. A CT scan was performed, observing great retro peritoneal mass enclosing vascular and nervous structures. An initial histological diagnosis of hamartoma was made. Surgery was scheduled to remove the tumour, ligation of thrombosed external iliac vein and the external iliac artery was preserved. Intraoperative histological findings suggested sarcoma, definite studies showed presence of high grade liposarcoma. Two weeks after the intervention, the patient presents in hypovolemic shock due to rupture of the right external iliac artery. Emergent ligation of the artery and femorofemoral bypass was performed, with adequate postoperatory recovery. The patient was discharged and continued adjuvant oncology treatment and was exitus six months later. Discussion: Sarcomas are the most frequent primary retroperitoneal tumours. They are difficult to diagnose and often have untimely treatment. Sarcomas tend to be asymptomatic, or present with local compression symptoms, affecting vascular and nervous structures. CT scan is the gold standard for diagnostic imaging. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, surgical resection as the main therapy; radio and chemotherapy represents a solution for irresectable or high grade malignancies.


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